It is proposed as an important composite construct that can assist in addressing human capital issues in organisations. Youssef and Luthans maintain that the relationship between PsyCap and work engagement and organisational commitment have been supported empirically in various organisational contexts. The PsyCap constructs of hope, optimism, resilience and self-efficacy will be presented in brief below. Snyder explains hope as a multidimensional construct that consists of an individual's 'willpower' and 'waypower'.
Hope enables individuals to be motivated to attain success with the task at hand by looking for the best pathway Avey et al.
Moreover, Youssef and Luthans found that it had a positive effect on employee satisfaction, organisational commitment and work happiness. Hope also protects an individual's perceptions of vulnerability, uncontrollability and unpredictability Snyder, Weick and Quinn thus believe that sustaining employees' hope is necessary for employee wellbeing. Optimism is more closely associated with positive psychology than the other constructs Luthans et al. It is regarded as being a realistic, flexible and dynamic construct that can be learned and developed Peterson, People with an optimistic outlook see setbacks as challenges and opportunities that can eventually lead to success Luthans et al.
Psychological Capital: Developing the Human Competitive Edge - Fred Luthans - Google книги
In a South African study, Rothmann and Essenko found that dispositional optimism had a direct effect on exhaustion and cynicism amongst support staff in a higher education institution. It is the authors' view that optimism forms a vital part of a call centre employee's resource capacities as their optimistic approach to stressful and challenging situations could potentially have a positive impact on the achievement of work-related goals. Rutter defined resilience as people's ability to manipulate their environment successfully in order to protect them from the negative consequences of adverse events.
Luthans b extended this definition to include people's ability to 'bounce back' from adversity. Research has attempted to link resilience positively with workplace performance Luthans et al. Philippe, Lecours and Beaulieu-Pelletier found that resilience has been associated with positive emotions, especially when an individual is experiencing a taxing event. Resilience has also been linked to more effective coping mechanisms and behaviours that facilitate growth and development.
In this regard, Youssef and Luthans propose that this may lead to higher overall commitment to the organisation, even though employees may experience their current situation and job requirements as unfavourable. Stajkovic and Luthans define self-efficacy as an individual's conviction regarding their ability to mobilise the motivation, cognitive resources and courses of action necessary to accomplish a specific task within a given context. An individual's perception and interpretation of events will influence and determine how they will address difficult challenges, as well as how they will experience of stress symptoms Bandura, Self-efficacy is a high-order construct of PsyCap Luthans et al.
This positive psychological resource capacity of confidence, which is a state, can be developed. It is described as an enthusiastic and independent concept, being linked closely with work-related performance Luthans et al. In a South African study, Rothmann found that positive psychological constructs such as self-efficacy could have a mediating effect on occupational stress, burnout and work engagement.
There are no studies in South African call centres on self-efficacy and its relation to work-related outcomes. Bakker, Demerouti and Schaufeli define work engagement as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterised by vigour, dedication and absorption. Kahn outlined how engaged employees express physical, cognitive and emotional components when applying themselves in their work role.
Employees need to have physical, emotional and psychological resources so as to complete their work and to identify with it. Maslach and Leiter conceptualised engagement and burnout as being opposite poles of a continuum of work-related wellbeing.
However, Schaufeli and Bakker believe that these two concepts cannot have a perfect negative correlation. Disengagement is central to the problem of an individual's lack of commitment and motivation May et al. Organisational commitment. Allen and Meyer proposed a three-component model of organisational commitment: affective, continuance and normative commitment.
Affective commitment refers to the employee's emotional attachment to, identification with and involvement in the organisation. Continuance commitment refers to commitment based on the benefits of staying with the organisation versus the costs that are associated with leaving the organisation. Normative commitment refers to an employee's feeling of obligation to remain with the organisation.
The affective component has the strongest and most consistent relationship with desirable workplace outcomes Arzu Wasti, Relationship between constructs. Buys and Rothmann reported a positive correlation between organisational commitment and work engagement, concluding that engaged employees had better social functioning and affective commitment. However, Janse van Rensburg asserts that there is a lack of published studies on the strengths and psychological capacities of call centre employees.
More specifically, to the knowledge of the researchers within the South African context, no research has addressed the relationship between the PsyCap, work engagement and organisational commitment of call centre employees. The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the research by identifying the relationships that may exist between PsyCap, work engagement and organisational commitment amongst South African call centre employees. It also aimed to establish whether PsyCap and work engagement have an impact on the organisational commitment of call centre employees.
The development of the state-like construct of PsyCap can be facilitated through human resources interventions such as training and development Luthans et al. These interventions could potentially facilitate the skills and coping strategies required in the call centre environment. Furthermore, the selection of call centre employees could also potentially include PsyCap profiles in order to ensure sustainability in the call centre environment.
According to Shaughnessy and Zechmeister this type of research design is ideally suited to descriptive and predictive functions and is thus well suited to achieve the aims and objectives of the present study. A nonprobability convenience sample was used in the study. Shaughnessy and Zechmeister explain that convenience sampling involves selecting respondents primarily on the basis of their availability and willingness to respond.
This was the preferred sampling technique as it had the practical benefits of being less time-consuming and more efficient Goodwin, The research participants were call centre employees from one call centre situated in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Characteristics of participants: Table 1 contains the participants' biographical data. The sample comprised more women There were differences in terms of marital status and academic qualifications. Most participants had been working in the call centre for less than five years.
Of the participants, The data collection consisted of a biographical data sheet and three scales. The biographical information included the participants' gender, age group, marital status, years working within the organisation tenure , highest qualification attained and work experience.
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The PCQ is a self-report questionnaire and has 24 items. Each subscale consists of six items. The resulting score represents an individual's level of PsyCap. The Cronbach alphas reported in their study were as follows: hope 0. Acceptable reliability coefficients have been reported in South African samples for the four dimensions with the alpha coefficients ranging from 0. The UWES is a self-report questionnaire and has 17 items. The UWES comprises three subscales, namely, vigour 6 items , dedication 5 items and absorption 6 items.
The UWES includes statements such as: 'I am bursting with energy in my work' vigour ; 'I find my work full of meaning and purpose' dedication ; and 'I am immersed in my work' absorption. The UWES has been found to have acceptable reliability coefficients that have been reported both internationally and in South Africa. Storm and Rothmann obtained alpha coefficients for internal consistency and reliability for the three subscales of between 0. Acceptable reliability coefficients of above 0. In a South African study, Jackson, Rothmann and van de Vijver reported an alpha coefficient of 0.
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Heymans obtained a Cronbach coefficient of 0. The OCQ statements include: 'I feel as if this organisation's problems are my own' affective commitment ; 'It would be very hard for me to leave the organisation right now, even if I wanted to' continuance commitment ; and 'I would feel guilty if I leave my organisation right now' normative commitment.
The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program version Descriptive statistics means, medians, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis were used to describe the data. Cronbach alpha coefficients a were used to assess the internal consistency or reliability of the measuring instruments. Effect sizes Cohen, were used to decide on the practical significance of the findings.
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were used to specify the relationship between PsyCap, work- engagement and organisational commitment. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were then also used to specify the relationships between the variables. A cut-off point of 0. Cohen's benchmark values are used as a qualitative judgement to determine whether the practical significance is 'small', 'medium' or 'large'.
The guidelines given by Cohen were 0. Practical significance for the study was set at 0. A medium effect size ranges from 0.
Psychological capital: developing the human competitive edge
Hierarchical regression analysis Field, was conducted to determine whether psychological capital and work engagement held predictive value for the organisational commitment. Descriptive statistics and Cronbach alpha coefficients. Table 2 provides an overview of the descriptive statistics minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis, as well as the Cronbach alpha coefficients of the PCQ, the UWES and the OCQ.
The statistical ranges of -2 to 2 for skewness and -7 to 7 for kurtosis are acceptable; therefore this data set has acceptable normality and lends itself to further analysis. The reliability coefficient for PCQ was 0. The UWES reliability coefficient was 0.