Chronic pain works in the same way. This is why pain may be felt long after the pain-causing event. Neuropathic pain : This follows injury to the peripheral nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. It can take the form of electric shock-like pain, tenderness, numbness, tingling, and discomfort.
Phantom pain : occurs after the amputation of a limb and refers to painful sensations given out by the missing limb. It affects some 70 percent of amputees. Central pain : is often caused by infarction, abscess, tumors, degeneration, or hemorrhage in the brain and spinal cord. Central pain is ongoing and can range from mild to extremely painful. Patients report burning, aching, and pressing sensations. Diagnosis depends on an individual's subjective description of the pain.
There is no objective scale for identifying the type of pain, so the doctor will take a pain history. A number of systems can identify and grade pain, but the most important factor in getting an accurate diagnosis is for the patient and doctor to communicate as clearly as possible. When people with cognitive impairments cannot accurately describe their pain, there can be clear indicators as to the presence of pain. These include:. If treatable, the doctor will either treat the underlying, pain-causing problem or prescribe painkilling treatment, such as medicine, to manage the pain.
Different types of pain will be treated in different ways. A treatment that is effective against one type of pain may not relieve another.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories NSAIDs are a type of analgesic, or painkiller, that can reduce pain and help the person regain daily function. They are available over-the-counter OTC or on prescription at a range of strengths. They are suitable for minor acute pains such as headaches , light sprains, and backaches.
NSAIDs can relieve localized inflammation and pain due to swelling. They can have side effects in the digestive system, including bleeding. A doctor will monitor higher dosages. Always read the packaging to find out what's in an analgesic before use and to check the maximum dosage. Never exceed the recommended dose. Opioids are prescribed for the most extreme acute pains, such as following surgery, burns, cancer , and bone fractures.
Why we have it all backward
Opioids are highly addictive, cause withdrawal symptoms, and lose effectiveness over time. They need a prescription. In severe trauma and pain situations, the doctor will carefully manage and administer the dose, gradually reducing the dosage to minimize withdrawal symptoms. Discuss all medication options carefully with a doctor, and disclose any conditions and current medications.
COPD, kidney disease, liver problems, previous drug addictions, and dementia can all be seriously affected by opioids. Often, a doctor can identify and treat an underlying disorder.
If an infection, for example, is causing a sore throat , antibiotics will remove the infection, and the pain will disappear. These include :. With effective pain management, it is possible to maintain daily activities, social engagement, and an active quality of life. A subdural hematoma occurs when a vein located beneath the skull ruptures and starts to bleed.
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Your Message. Please leave this field empty. For all general enquiries and enquiries concerning pain information, please contact: b. Toggle navigation. The Pain Relief Foundation Funding research into the causes and treatment of human chronic pain. The Pain Relief Foundation Educating health professionals with the treatment of chronic pain. About The Pain Relief Foundation is a UK charity which funds research into the causes and treatment of human chronic pain and is concerned with education of health professionals about pain management.
The purpose of the Foundation was the setting up and running of a Pain Research Institute. NEWS Find out what's new?